#Policy Analysis: #Menstruation in #Chhaupadi guideline, #Constitution, #SDG

#Policy Analysis: #Menstruation in #Chhaupadi guideline, #Constitution, #SDG

by Radha Paudel
Abstract: The menstruation is biological phenomena and each woman experience in their lifetime. It is heavily ignored by international human rights declarations and also found same in the national level. MHM (Menstrual Health Management)/MR (Menstrual Rights) is confined under Chhaupadi that doesn’t represent all forms of restrictions and locations where and what girls and women practicing. The Sustainable Development Goals (SDG), Nepalese Constitution 2015 and Chhaupadi guidelines are critical documents in current discussion for MHM/MR to understand the position as well as explore the role of each actors around it.

Key Words: Menstrual Rights, Menstrual Health Management, Chhaupadi, SDG, Constitution 2015
Half of the women in this world menstruate when they enter in to puberty and it ended with menopause about the age of 45-49 years. A woman has menstruated about 3000 days in her life time and the global population represents by a quarter of menstruating women (Yesmin, 2008). Many development organizations are globally used the term of MHM (Menstrual Health Management) for most efforts to address menstruation in low-resource setting. It refers the absorption of menstrual blood on to clean material which can be changed in privacy and also incorporate the availability of soap and clean water, to wash re -usable sanitary materials and the body, as well as suitable place of disposal for used materials (WHO-UNICEF, 2012)
It is recently emerged in development. However, it is not enough to address the comprehensive needs, priorities and rights of menstrual girls and women globally (Inga T. Winkler, 2015). Because the global construction of menstruation is vary though associated with stigma, restrictions, polluted, impure, dirty, contagious, secrecy, shame, silence, inferior, humiliation, powerless etc. since civilization to date (Patkar A., 2013; Lee J. 2003; Paudel R., 2015). More importantly, the menstruation is beyond the infrastructure (Yesmin, 2008). Thus, her Menstrual Rights (MR) also discussed along with MHM. Here, the concept of MHM and MR used together to make clearer as well as bringing together as priority concern of human right.
In Nepalese history, the 2016 is the most favourable year for equality due to securing a very high, political and historical positions by prominent women leaders; Mrs Bidhya Devi Bhandari, head of the state, Mrs Onsari Gharti, Speaker of the House, Mrs. Sushila Karki, Chief Justice of Supreme court and Mrs Bandana Rana, Committee member in CEDAW where everyone are there for just, equal and peaceful society through implementation of constitution 2015 as well as transferring the international human rights instruments in to actions. In other side of the coin, the Chhaupadi, a form of menstrual restriction is also covered by CNN, BBC, Buzznews Feed, Guardian, WUNRN and other many medias globally where girls and women are not only suffered from the menstrual restriction but also found death at sheds as outcomes of practicing restrictions. Empirically, there is no any call for action yet (Bhandari, 2016).
The MHM and MR was not mentioned explicitly in many human right related conference and resolutions such as Program of Action 1994, the Bejing Platform for Action 1995, World Health Assembly Resolution 64 on Water Resolution and Sanitation, 2011. It is being ignored in both development and human right discourse globally including Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) 2030. Here, this report reviewed the alignment of MHM/MR with SDGs, the Nepali Constitution 2015 and Guideline on Chhaupadi in relation with human right framework and localization of global policies in to practice.
ü To assess the compatibility of SDGs, Nepali Constitution 2015 and Guideline on          Chhaupadi developed by government with MRH and MR
ü To identify the gaps in understanding and implementation in relation to MHM and       MR
Analysis of Sustainable Goals (SDGs):
There are 17 goals and 169 targets finalized and approved by UN state members in September 2015[1]. In general, the SDGs 2030 is remained silent on MHM or MR whereas at first, in 2014, The UN Human Rights Council recognized that the gender equality is the due to deep ignorance on MHM and MR in development and human right discourse (UN, Human Rights Council, Res., 2014).  It is claimed by the key note speaker of Women Deliver 2016 too (Grijns, 2016). But again, while approving the SDG 2030, the MRH and MR exist in hibernation.
None of the target speaks related to MHM and MR such as menstrual taboos, restrictions, poor menstrual hygiene whereas it speaks directly on issues such as child marriage and FGM (Female Genital Mutation) which are less in quantity than menstruation. However, if we go through analysis of the target under the goal number of 1,3, 4, 5, 6, 8 and 16, there is indirect connection with MHM/MR in many ways. Here, the below matrix discusses about it, gaps and analysis.  
Gap Analysis
1. End Poverty in all its forms everywhere
1.4: By 2030, ensure that all men and women, in particular the poor and the vulnerable, have equal rights to economic resources, as well as access to basic services, ownership and control over land and other forms of property, inheritance, natural resources, appropriate new technology and financial services, including microfinance 
Out of five targets under goal one, only target 1.4 has very thin lining with MHM/MR or merely absence of link with MHM/MR. Based on case stories (Nepal, 2013)  and reports (Paudel, Menstrual Restriction in Karnali, 2016)many women specially who are living in rural and poor status they couldn’t participate at family and community level discussions, activities and lack of access to resources as well as basic services. It is also associated with education and employment. WaterAid (2009) claimed that 53 % girls are missing schools during period in four surveyed districts in Nepal.
3. Ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all at all ages
3.7: By 2030, ensure universal access to sexual and reproductive health-care services, including for family planning, information and education, and the integration of reproductive health into national strategies and programmes.
There are nine targets formulated under goal three. Among them, target 3.7 is related with MHM/MR if we include the MHM/MR under umbrella word of Reproductive Health (RH), information and education. How could state and non-state actors ensure the healthy lives and promote well- being without talking and caring of MHM/MR which is a very important element of RH. It was agreed by PATH (PATH, 2016) which is a pioneer organization working in MHM.  
4. Ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote life or learning opportunities for all.
4.4: By 2030, substantially increase the number of youth and adults who have relevant skills, including technical and vocational skills, for employment, decent jobs and entrepreneurship
4.5: By 2030, eliminate gender disparities in education and ensure equal access to all levels of education and vocational training for the vulnerable, including persons with disabilities, indigenous peoples and children in vulnerable situations.
4.7: By 2030, ensure that all learners acquire the knowledge and skills needed to promote sustainable development, including, among others, through education for sustainable development and sustainable lifestyles, human rights, gender equality, promotion of a culture of peace and non-violence, global citizenship and appreciation of cultural diversity and of culture’s contribution to sustainable development 
4.a: Build and upgrade education facilities that are child, disability and gender sensitive and provide safe, non-violent, inclusive and effective learning environments for all
Out of seven targets, three targets are related with MHM/MR though it is not explicitly mentioned.
The education, employment, and gender equality are the human right issue which are not fully achieved and enjoyed without MHM/MR.  Because the  right to education is guaranteed in Article 13 ICESCR. Likewise, the Article 10 CEDAW urged to take appropriate measures for equality in education (OHCHR, 2016).
The 4.a. target is also being used by PATH (PATHa).
5. Achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls
5.1: End all forms of discrimination against all women and girls everywhere.
5.2: Eliminate all forms of violence against all women and girls in the public and private spheres, including trafficking and sexual and other types of exploitation 
5.3: Eliminate all harmful practices, such as child, early and forced marriage and female genital mutilation 
5.5: Ensure women’s full and effective participation and equal opportunities for leadership at all levels of decision-making in political, economic and public life 
5.6: Ensure universal access to sexual and reproductive health and reproductive rights as agreed in accordance with the Programme of Action of the International Conference on Population and Development and the Beijing Platform for Action and the outcome documents of their review conferences 
Among six targets, five targets have indirect connection with MHM/MR without referring it. But, PATH claimed that only target 5.1 has connection with MHM/MR. The menstruation is underlying cause for institutionalizing the gender discrimination at family and communal level but it doesn’t get space at all. MHM is disguised under the word of gender discrimination, violence, traditional harmful practices which is largely depends on an individual analysis, mind set and interpretation that means MHM is not priority for action. In Target 5.6. reminded the universal access to sexual and reproductive health according to Cairo Conference 1994 and Bejing Conference 1995 but these both do not refer the issue MHM/MR directly. Poor MHM/MR is the outcome of various forms of violence against women includes abuses, rape, death, murder (AWON, 2013, Paudel, R.,2014) that affirmed by UN declaration on Violence Against Women (UN, UN declaration on Violence Against Women, 1993) .
Any act of gender based violence that result in, or is likely to result in, physical, sexual or mental harm or suffering to women including threats of such acts, coercion or arbitrary deprivation of liberty, whether occurring in public or in private life.
6. Ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all
6.1: By 2030, achieve universal and equitable access to safe and affordable drinking water for all
6.2: By 2030, achieve access to adequate and equitable sanitation and hygiene for all and end open defecation, paying special attention to the needs of women and girls and those in vulnerable situations.
There are six targets under goal six where only two targets related with MHM though there is no clearly speaking on menstruation or period or MHM. Indirectly referred to the MHM by saying all and special attention to the needs of women and girls and those in vulnerable situations. Poor water supply and sanitation for MHM/MR is one cause of missing school (Wateraid, 2009).
8. Promote sustained, inclusive and sustainable economic growth, full and productive employment and decent work for all
8.5: By 2030, achieve full and productive employment and decent work for all women and men, including for young people and persons with disabilities, and equal pay for work of equal value 
Only one target out of the ten indirectly related with MHM. The right to employment and decent work are the issue of human right reinforced in Article 6 (1) and 7(b) ICESCR and Article 11(1) and 11(1)(f) CEDAW.
16. Promote peaceful and inclusive societies for sustainable development, provide access to justice for all and build effective, accountable and inclusive institutions at all levels.
16.1: Significantly reduce all forms of violence and related death rates everywhere 
16.2: End abuse, exploitation, trafficking and all forms of violence against and torture of children 
16.7: Ensure responsive, inclusive, participatory and representative decision-making at all levels 
Among ten targets under goal 16, three targets associated with MHM/MR accordance of UN declaration on violence against Women because many girls and women suffered from various forms of violence due to following of sets of menstrual restrictions. Girls and women depressed and suicidal (AWON, 2013) during period due to poor MHM/MR. Likewise, many girls and women are dying in cowshed, deprived from having nutritious food, clean clothes, rest, participation etc. during period so they are living in non-visible conflict within themselves, with their family and community (Paudel, Chhaupadi, 2016). In this connection, how the peace could be promoted.

Analysis of the Nepalese Constitution 2015
              The Constitution 2015 (Government, 2015)has aligned with international human right instruments in many ways. In it’s permeable, speaks about the gender and discrimination that sense a lot for guaranteeing the citizen’s right. In relation with MHM/MR, under the Part III, there are many articles; 16, 17,18, 24,30,31,35,36,37 and 38 that have thin and thick connection with. The below matrix discussed on what extent these abovementioned articles aligned with MHM/Mr or not.
Location in Constitution 2015
Provision in Constitution
Gap Analysis
In Paragraph four, it includes the elimination of all forms of discrimination respect to culture, gender, ……for building just society
It is very good indicator that constitution articulates under the premises of the constitution because the MHM/MR is the outcome of discrimination due to gender.
Part 3, Fundamental rights and Duties, Article 16: Right to dignified life
1. Each individual deserved to right to dignity of life.
This sub article of article 16, is directly link with MHM/MR. Keeping girls and women in poor hygienic condition and imposed sets of restrictions during period is not the right to dignified life that confirmed by the Article I, UN, Human Right Declaration‘ all human being are born free and equal in dignity and rights’ (UN, Universal Declaration of Human Rights, 1948). In practice, the girls are missing the schools due to poor hygienic conditions during period (Wateraid, 2009; Paudel R., 2015).
Part 3, Fundamental rights and Duties, Article 17: Right to Freedom
2.1. Freedom of idea and expression
This sub article is not direct though there is thin lining to connect with MHM/MR. Each girl and women should not be deprived to join any meetings or gathering during period that affirmed by Article 2, 3  and 9 of Human Right Declaration (UN, Universal Declaration of Human Rights, 1948). In many circumstances (Paudel, 2016) girls and women are not able to join any cultural programs, group meetings where there right of freedom of idea and expression is violated. 
Part 3: Fundamental rights and Duties, Article 18: Right to Equality
1. Each citizen is equal by virtue of law, no one should have deprived from the privileges of equality.
2. There is no any discrimination at the name of origin, religion, colour, caste, gender, physical condition, disability, health condition, marital status, pregnancy, economic condition, language or region, ideology etc.
Out of four sub articles, two articles are directly related with MHM/MR where girls and women shouldn’t be discriminated at the name of their physical condition if it interprets for menstruation but not necessary to all and everywhere. It is also a proclaimed by Human Right Declaration, right to dignity, Article 1.
Part 3: Fundamental rights and Duties, Article 24: Right to discrimination against contamination (Chhuwachhut) and discrimination
1. No one should not be discriminated at public and private place at the name of origin, caste, ethnicity, community, profession, work or physical condition.
5. If any act against above mentioned sub articles, is considered as serious social crime and punishable. And also, victims should get compensation as policy.
Out of five articles, two articles directly related with MHM/MR. The menstruation is a form of physical condition so girls and women shouldn’t have discriminated at all no matter whether they are at home or beyond. But no one aware about such level of rights girls and women deserved. Till date, none of the cases reported until and unless associated with rape, death or murder. The state and non-state actors are also not aware such level of constitutional provisions. In many cases, the inexperienced social mobilizers are involved in local level activism (Paudel, Radha Paudel Foundation, 2016).
Part 3: Fundamental rights and Duties, Article 30: Right to Healthy Environment
1. Each citizen should live in clean and healthy environment
While girls and women are under the practice of sets of restrictions, they are deprived from clean and healthy environment as well as suffered from various forms of immediate and long term health problems. Many literatures supported this including various human rights declarations.
Part 3: Fundamental rights and Duties, Article 31: Right to Education
1. Each citizen has right to access to basic education
Out of five sub articles, only one sub article directly linked with MHM/MR. Girls are deprived from education 60 days in a year in many parts of the country such as Kathmandu, Lalitpur, Mugu, Chitwan etc. (Paudel, 2016).
Part 3: Fundamental rights and Duties, Article 35: Right to Health
4. Each citizen has right of access to clean drinking water and sanitation.
Out of four sub articles, only one directly connected with MHM/MR. Because girls and women deprived from clean drinking water and sanitation at home, schools and community. Many schools do not have toilets, if they have there is no toilets for girls, if there is toilet for girls, there is no water supply. In many places of the country, girls and women put in to the shed which are so unhygienic ((Paudel, Radha Paudel Foundation, 2016).
Part 3: Fundamental rights and Duties, Article 36: Right to Food
2. Each citizen has right to protect from unavailability of food.
During period, girls and women not allow to eat nutritious food such as milk and milk products, meat and meat products, vegetables, fruits, rice etc. These acts contrary with the right to food, article 9, Human Right Declaration.
Part 3: Fundamental rights and Duties, Article 37: Right to House
1. Each citizen has right to have an appropriate house.
Putting girls and women in sheds and other inappropriate places during period is contrary with this fundamental right. It is also confirmed by Article 3 and 25 Human Right Declaration 1948.
Part 3: Fundamental rights and Duties, Article 38: Right to Women
2. Each woman deserved for safe motherhood and reproductive health
3. Shouldn’t commit any physical, mental, sexual, psychological or any form of violence or exploitation for women on the basis of religion, social, cultural, traditional or any. In case of such violence, should punish as well as provision of compensation according to policy.
Out of six sub articles, number two and three are directly related with MHM/MR. Imposed various forms of restrictions to women is the violence of physical, sexual, psychological where girls and women are not only affected in immediate term but also affected for longer term that impacted up to safe motherhood and entire reproductive health of girls and women (Paudel, Radha Paudel Foundation, 2016). It is also confirmed by the various UN declarations as already mentioned.
Guideline on Chhaupadi Elimination in 2064 (2008)
The Ministry of Women, Children and Social Welfare formulated the guideline on Chhaupadi Elimination 2064 (2008) according to the stay order of supreme court in 2005. It is a good step to have some sorts of policy but very incomplete in order to address the MHM/MR in holistic manner. The below matrix discussed about its position in relation to practicality as well as human right perspectives.

Existing Policy
Existing Practice
Gaps Analysis
·      1. This guideline called Chhaupadi Custom Elimination Guidelines 2064
·      1.2. This guideline enforced immediately 2064
No definition for Chhaupadi
· None of the case reported yet
There is no definition for Chhaupadi
Actors working on their own understandings, biases and behaviours.
·  More than 95 % families practicing including service provides, advocates etc. (Hodal, 2016)
·  Many state stakeholders do not aware about this guideline in a decade course of formulation of guidelines ( (Paudel, Chhaupadi, 2016).
·      2. Objective: This document is formulated to create just, equal society and improved health, Chhaupadi is considered as a form of discrimination and violence against girls and women. It is being practice in few districts of Far and mid-west region in Nepal where girls were isolated for 11 days during first menstruation, 5 days for unmarried girls and 4 days for married women. During these days, girls and women have to stay in menstrual sheds, deprived to go to the public places such as school, tap, road etc. eating milk, not allow to eat nutritious food such as milk, curd, ghee etc.  
·   There are various forms of restrictions; entering (in to house, school, temple, any social and cultural gatherings, meetings), touching (any male members, pregnant women, infants, pickle, plants of fruits and vegetables, religious books) and not allow to eat (fruits, vegetables, milk and milk products, meat and meat products, rice) (Chhanel, 2016)
·  There is no comprehensive study on the gravity and impact of the Chhaupadi yet.
·  The bottom line principle is restriction during menstruation. In line with this principle, the Chhaupadi is practicing across the country and beyond where Nepalese resided (Paudel, Chhaupadi, 2016).
·  There is immediate and long term adverse effect by practicing various forms of restrictions. The sets of restrictions seriously affect in physical, psychological, reproductive and nutritional health, education, employment, marriage (voluntary child marriage) and often rape, bite by wild animals and snakes, rape, murder and eventually death (Nepal, 2013).
·  It is key barrier for peace, serious forms of violence of human right, empowerment and also barrier for achieving sustainable development goals (Paudel, Chhaupadi, 2016).
· 3. The process of Elimination of Chhaupadi Pratha (custom): The following activities will be launched;
· A. Immediate Program:
1. Will be followed the ways to raise awareness on Chhaupadi related traditional beliefs, norms, mandates and practices.
2. Provided information on health service and nutrition to girls and women who are directly affected by.
3. Felicitate he individuals, family and community who eliminate Chhaupadi.
B. Long Term Program:
1. Along with economic, social and political empowerment, for proportionate participation of women in all sectors; national and social, and conduct the programs.
2. Build just society where women assured their human right beanfield by legal provisions.
·      In few villages of far west and mid-west region, few and small scale activities are launched by state and non-state actors includes orientation programs, song competition, banners, quiz competition etc.
·      The message on health and nutrition is included in above mentioned activities.
·      At local level, few state and non-state organizations felicitated.
·   It is associated with overarching goal of women empowerment. There are no specific provisions for the sake of empowering women in longer run.
·   Till date, the government formulated guideline on elimination of Chhaupadi only.
·      This article is so far fine if the country is regulated by the policy and system. Unfortunately, merely absence of enforcement of the policies due to various reasons including silence for impunity, political instability and interference, inadequate policies etc. In this condition, this article is worthless at all. Many state and non-state actors who are front line of this program do not know the physiology of menstruation and childbirth and do not ready to break taboos or restrictions at their individual life as role model.
·      Specially girls and women suffered so much and each man aware about the condition over Chhaupadi though they do not like to eliminate due to their believe on god and religion at first. Thus, these types of activities are already outdated. They need critical analysis of nature, science and of course of religious books. Without know the fact of construction of Chhaupadi, not possible to eliminate the Chhaupadi.
·  In practice the Chhaupadi related program started to organize as formality by stakeholders where no one connect it with overarch goal of women empowerment
·  Due to Nepalese societal construction and structure, men are the power holders even for the Chhaupadi as father, grandfather, faith healer, Pandit, or any other form so they should be engaged critically for results (Chhanel, 2016).
· 4. Authorities for conduction of programs:
· 4.1. In order to implemented activities as mentioned in article 3, the following committee will be formed in Chhaupadi existing districts.
· 4.1.1. District Level Committee
ü District Development Office: Coordinator
ü District Administrative Office: Member
ü District Education Office: Member
ü District Public Health Office: Member
ü District Police Office: Member
ü National and International NGOs: Member
ü Women Leader/representative from women’s group: Member
ü Representative from child club: Member
ü Representative from Teacher: Member
ü Women Development Office: Member Secretary.
· The Chhaupadi monitoring committee started to form and implemented.
·      Usually conduct meetings while the days or celebrations approaching.
·  The committee does not give the space for  Pandits and faith healers where the Chhaupadi rules imparted directly and indirectly in many ways.
·  The district level committee is always busy and travelling so very hard to make complete. In many cases, there is no fund and no specific agenda too.
·  Till date, the cases are not identified and bring in to legal action unless there is no involvement of rape or murder or death.
·  They only focused on speech, celebrations and at district level.
·      4.1.2.Municipality/Village level committee
ü Municipality/village: Coordinator
ü  Government representatives from same locality: Member
ü  Representatives of National and International NGOs: Member
ü  Women Leader/representatives of women’s group: Member
ü  Representatives from Child Club: Member
ü  Representative from Teacher: member
· The formation of local committees are started recently where the NGOs are working on Chhaupadi.
It is bit more functional than the district level though the level of understanding is very because many members are still practicing it at their family level (Paudel, 2016).
·      4.2. The committee as 4.1. should implement the activities based on action plan.
The activities are implemented in these areas where more NGOs are working in this issue e.g. Jumla
·      The way of addressing Chhaupadi is very filthy indeed. Because Chhauapdi is not linear and unidirectional issue. It has multifaceted as well as has immediate and long term impacts. It also has different spectrum e.g. Public and Private. By and large, this is urgent and political issue but not getting attention everywhere.
·  4.3. The local stakeholders should have endorsed the activities in to their annual plan as well as allocate the budget accordingly
·      It depends on availability of funding. Till date, few village grant and NGO’s fund are using in event basis.
·      As mentioned above the comprehensive action plan needed for addressing Chhaupadi. It has to reach at individual level than in mass. Mass has already aware about it.
·       5. Target Community:
1.    Schools
2.    Girls and women who affected from Chhaupadi
3.    Community (Dhami, Jhakri, Pandit, Mukhiya (community leader etc.)
4.    Senior members and other of the family
5.    Political Parties
·      In many cases, target only for schools, girls and women.
·      Usually, political parties remain silence on it. I found couple of incidents where political leaders, experts and lawyer are in favour of Chhaupadi. So it is very complex. 
·   Dhami Jhakri, Pandit, Mukhiya are missing while formulating the activities which put women in more risks. Women are vocal in front of trainer or training but unable to convince at home or speak in front of the male or senior member of the family. In many cases, women left the group meeting due to conflict of talking about menstruation, Chhaupadi which is considered as stigma or taboo in the community.
·   The boys and men have to take lead role to unpeel the practice of Chhaupadi. Likewise, women and men who have demonstrated the role model, should mobilized them for building more allies (Nepal, 2013).
·               6. Resource Mobilization: The proposed committee will mobilize following resources for implementation of activities as 4.1.
1.    Resource from local stakeholders
2.    Government’s resource
3.    Resource from I/NGOs
4.    Other resource
· There is no specific resource for Chhaupadi, always experienced conflict for marking activities during days. The fund is more easy if there is NGOs which are working directly in Chhaupadi.
· It showed that the government is not serious in this regards. It doesn’t see the direct and indirect link with Sustainable Development Goals(SDGs), peace, human right and empowerment. The restriction during period is key cause for almost all forms of discrimination and violence. 
· 7. Have to assist: All individuals who possess various public positions, members of the Chhaupadi affected girls and women, and each citizen of the society obligated to eliminate the Chhaupadi.
· It is not applicable at large. It is very ideal statement which is not relevant in Nepalese society. Chhaupadi is not considered as crime or violence at large.
·  Many school teachers, health workers, activists are following the practice at their home where as they are preaching against Chhaupadi at public life.
·  The accountability at personal and relational level practice is merely absence. In many cases, the NGOs and few political groups insisting to follow Chhaupadi.
Conclusion and Recommendation
In Nepal, there are many policies are in place for promoting and protecting human right of girls and women specially followed by People’s War 2006. More importantly, Nepal has signatory country for declarations related with rights of girls and women e.g. CEDAW etc. However, these policies are not addressed in holistically as well as not transferred in to the action at large.
Based on the above mentioned national and international policies, this paper recommended as following;
1.    MHM and MR is not only women’s issue, it is everyone issue therefore have to mentioned very clearly where applies.
2.    While crafting the policies nationally, the MHM/MR should go very clearly as cross cutting issues across all sectors and levels. There are many words can link with MHM and MR but not clearly mentioned the word of MHM or MR or menstruation or Chhaupadi in Constitution 2015.
3.    The guideline on Chhaupadi has to amendment in order to craft in more comprehensive manner as well as enforcement. Now, the guideline is so vague and very difficult to follow to all state and non-state actors who are working in MHM/MR.
4.    This Chhaupadi is not legal provision at all so need to formulate the specific policy for dignified menstruation.
5.    Also need to disseminate the message as much as possible by conducting community activities as well as engagement with media at all sectors.


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[1] https://sustainabledevelopment.un.org

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